Monday, September 14, 2009

Memory functions in children with early hydrocephalus.

Scott MA, Fletcher JM, Brookshire BL, Davidson KC, Landry SH, Bohan TC, Kramer LA, Brandt ME, Francis DJ. Memory functions in children with early hydrocephalus.
Neuropsychology. 1998 Oct;12(4):578-89.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Springdale 72765-0768, USA.

Children with arrested, shunted, and no hydrocephalus were compared on verbal and nonverbal memory tasks assessing multiple components of memory. A gradient of severity was hypothesized, with the shunted hydrocephalus group expected to exhibit the most significant memory impairments and the arrested group expected to perform more poorly than children with no hydrocephalus. Etiologies of prematurity, spina bifida, and aqueductal stenosis were represented by 157 participants. Results supported the hypothesis; the shunted hydrocephalus group performed poorer on all memory measures. Differences for the arrested group were less frequently statistically significant relative to children with no hydrocephalus. Irrespective of etiology, the shunted hydrocephalus group exhibited a pattern of performance suggestive of encoding and retrieval deficits on both verbal and nonverbal tasks, showing a pervasive disturbance of memory processes.

PMID: 9805328

Sustained attention in children with two etiologies of early hydrocephalus.

Swartwout, Maegan D.; Cirino, Paul T.; Hampson, Amy W.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Brandt, Michael E.; Dennis, Maureen; Sustained attention in children with two etiologies of early hydrocephalus. Neuropsychology, Vol 22(6), Nov, 2008. pp. 765-775.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5355, USA.

Several studies have shown that children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and hydrocephalus have attention problems on parent ratings and difficulties in stimulus orienting associated with a posterior brain attention system. Less is known about response control and inhibition associated with an anterior brain attention system. Using the Gordon Vigilance Task (Gordon, 1983), we studied error rate, reaction time, and performance over time for sustained attention, a key anterior attention function, in 101 children with SBM, 17 with aqueductal stenosis (AS; another condition involving congenital hydrocephalus), and 40 typically developing controls (NC). In SBM, we investigated the relation between cognitive attention and parent ratings of inattention and hyperactivity and explored the impact of medical variables. Children with SBM did not differ from AS or NC groups on measures of sustained attention, but they committed more errors and responded more slowly. Approximately one-third of the SBM group had attention symptoms, although parent attention ratings were not associated with task performance. Hydrocephalus does not account for the attention profile of children with SBM, which also reflects the distinctive brain dysmorphologies associated with this condition.

PMID: 18999350

Transcallosal connectivity and cortical rhythms: findings in children with spina bifida.

Castillo EM, Fletcher JM, Li Z, Hoskison MM, Hasan KM, Passaro A, Papanicolaou AC. Transcallosal connectivity and cortical rhythms: findings in children with spina bifida. NeuroReport. 2009 Aug 26;20(13):1188-92.

Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

We studied the relation between cortical oscillatory rhythms and the structural integrity of the corpus callosum in 21 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Participants underwent resting state neuromagnetic recordings and diffusion tensor imaging. Areas of three segments of the corpus callosum (genu, body, splenium) were derived through diffusion tensor imaging-based morphometrics. Children with spina bifida showed reduced values of spectral power in the theta, alpha and beta bands when compared with age-matched controls, but only in the posterior and temporal regions. Reduced spectral power in posterior regions correlated with decreased area of the posterior segments of the corpus callosum. Atypical cortical oscillatory activity is associated with reduced transcallosal connectivity in children with spina bifida.