Friday, July 20, 2007

Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children with myelomeningocele.

Kirk VG, Morielli A, Gozal D, Marcus CL, Waters KA, D'Andrea LA, Rosen CL, Deray MJ, Brouillette RT. Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children with myelomeningocele. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2000 Dec;30(6):445-52.

The prevalence of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with myelomeningocele may be as high as 20%, but little information is available regarding treatment of these patients. To assess the efficacy and complications of treatments for these children, we collected data on 73 patients from seven pediatric sleep laboratories. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, n = 30) and central apnea (n = 25) occurred more frequently than central hypoventilation (n = 12). We also describe a sleep-exacerbated restrictive lung disease type of SDB in 6 patients who had hypoxemia during sleep without apnea or central hypoventilation. For each type of SDB, effective treatments were identified in a stepwise process, moving towards more complex and invasive therapies. For OSA, adenotonsillectomy was often ineffective (10/14), whereas nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was usually successful (18/21). For central apnea, methylxanthines and/or supplemental oxygen proved sufficient in 2 of 9 and 3 of 6, respectively, but noninvasive positive pressure ventilation was required in 7 children. For central hypoventilation, supplemental oxygen (alone or with methylxanthines), noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, and tracheostomy with positive pressure ventilation were effective in 3, 2, and 2 patients, respectively. Sleep-exacerbated restrictive lung disease always required supplemental oxygen treatment, but in 2 cases also required noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; nutritional and orthopedic procedures also were helpful. Posterior fossa decompression was used for the first three types of SDB, but data were insufficient to delineate specific recommendations for or against its use. In summary, evaluation by an experienced, multidisciplinary team can establish an effective treatment regime for a child with myelomeningocele and SDB. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 11109055

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