Wednesday, July 18, 2007

A multicenter evaluation of urinary incontinence management and outcome in spina bifida.

Lemelle JL, Guillemin F, Aubert D, Guys JM, Lottmann H, Lortat-Jacob S, Moscovici J, Mouriquand P, Ruffion A, Schmitt M. A multicenter evaluation of urinary incontinence management and outcome in spina bifida. J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):208-12.

PURPOSE: We describe urinary continence management and outcome in patients with spina bifida to identify the procedures that are most successful.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter retrospective cohort study medical charts were studied. At the same time in a cross-sectional survey sociodemographic characteristics, orthopedic features and urinary continence were described based on the frequency of leakage from the viewpoint of patients or close relatives using a Likert scale of 5 items, namely 1-leakage permanent to 5-leakage never.

RESULTS: A total of 421 patients were included, of whom 191 (45%) had been medically treated with a normal voiding pattern according to the patient viewpoint in 21%, clean intermittent catheterization in 61% and no specific bladder emptying method in 18%. The mean leakage score +/- SD was 2.74 +/- 1.55. On the other hand, 230 patients (55%) were surgically treated. Except for 23 patients who underwent noncontinent urinary diversion 207 were considered for treatment and continence description. The mean leakage score was 3.45 +/- 1.60. An artificial urinary sphincter in male and females, and a sling or Kropp technique in females were satisfactory when bladder enlargement was not required. In cases of bladder augmentation without continent diversion an artificial urinary sphincter in males and a bladder neck sling or cinch, Kropp and Young-Dees procedures in females have provided the best results. In cases of bladder enlargement with continent urinary diversion bladder neck closure or a wrap have provided the best results whatever the patient sex.

CONCLUSIONS: Many factors may influence the choice of a technique, such as patient sex, bladder characteristics or orthopedic conditions. However, since to our knowledge no randomized, controlled study has been yet performed, definitive conclusions on the best way to achieve urinary continence in patients with spina bifida cannot be established.

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